Humanitarian law violations in the Yemen conflict (2011-2015)

The transitional Yemeni government faces several challenges on the path to ending grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, especially after the 2011 events, by not implementing the international agreements that Yemen has ratified in order to protect non-participants in the conflict and by it shows duplication in implementation and according to global reports on Yemen for the year 2013 Human Rights Watch and 2014 and 2015 can identify the violations and breaches of international humanitarian law, and, in return, the areas in which the rules of this law was applied, as follows:

 Under the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols thereto and in accordance with Article 80, namely the adoption by states of national laws to ensure the application of the 15 treaties and measures related to publishing and training, here is an attempt to implement the rules in line with international agreements as President Hadi announced on September 22 the creation of an independent commission to investigate violations During the protests, and to come up with recommendations in the area of accountability for perpetrators, compensation and redress for the victims, and the Transitional Justice Bill is still stalled and a trial has begun for 78 accused of the deadliest attack on protesters during the uprising, in which pro-government gunmen killed 45 people and wounded 200 others, on March 18, 2011, The trial attempt for the involvement of government officials failed.

Under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948, while the last hideous terrorist crime of al-Qaeda International in Yemen was the crime of genocide committed by a suicide bombing that killed about 115 people and wounded nearly three hundred people all of whom were removed from arms and affiliated with the Yemeni Central Security were In the middle of the Square of the Seventy Square in Sanaa, here is a violation of international agreements that prevent the targeting of non-participants in the armed conflict and here these crimes are promoted for war crimes and the defendants are referred to the International Criminal Court.

Under the signature of “Yemen” on the agreement banning the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and destroying those mines Ottawa in 1997, it violated the agreement, as the conflict in different parts of Yemen between the parties to the conflict resulted in human losses due to the explosion of mines and hand-made explosives and the government recognized that there was a “violation” For the Mine Ban Treaty

Under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in the armed conflict in 2000, it is prohibited to exploit children in armed conflict under the age of 18, and by reference to the parties to the conflict, we find that the agreement has not been implemented by the government and opposition forces inside Sanaa using children in street patrols and guarding Checkpoints and sometimes in hostilities, in violation of the international ban on the use of children in armed conflict.

According to the signed agreement that aims not to target workers in the field of health and humanitarian services, this agreement was not implemented, but rather violated it, as health workers and health facilities have come to protect themselves from armed groups. “Doctors without Borders” reported 18 different attacks on group workers in Amran over the past year and these included shootings, threats and physical attacks on health workers.

Under the Third Geneva Convention of Special Protection for Journalists, and Article 79 of the First Additional Protocol of 1977 prohibits targeting journalists, but this article has been violated as it recorded 148 incidents of abuse involving media workers of various types of assault and detention without legal basis, the government did not condemn the attacks, or Investigate it, hold those responsible to account, and the government has also taken no broader measures to protect journalists.

           At the end of this part of the article, we can say that international humanitarian law in Yemen has been penetrated by all parties to the armed conflict, whether by the government or militias and other organizations and for this, there is no implementation of the law in the case of Yemen due to the increase in duplication in that despite the presence of an intention to apply it.

References

Yemen New displacement movements due to unrest and persistent conflict-related displacement situations in Saada, Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, October 2011, website: The site was browsed on: 06/24/2016 00:21 posted on the following website: www.internal-displacement. org 

Alexander Mitersky, The Civil War in Yemen: A Complex Conflict and Divergent Prospects, Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, Qatar, 2015. 

Hammoud Nasser Al-Qadami, Paths of Internal Conflict in Yemen, Regional Center for Strategic Studies, Cairo, 2015, p. 44.