Turkey has many advantages in terms of becoming an energy center. Turkey is distinguished by its geographical location between the market and the source countries. Turkey has a very useful location for obtaining energy to meet its needs and also to be a center for the distribution of energy or a corridor of energy pipelines from the source countries to the importing countries, Turkey is a neighbor to each of The Middle East and the Caspian Sea region, the energy-rich regions of the world. Turkey is a transit country for oil from Iran and Iraq to European countries and it will also become a transit country for natural gas when TANAP and Turk Stream is fully completed. These advantages that Turkey possesses in the field of energy transfer will further enhance the position and importance of Turkey and Turkish foreign policy more in the international arena and in the field of energy. Turkey will become a major transit route for gas to Europe. It also makes it a major center for energy distribution and can secure its energy needs for a long period of time and diversify its sources of energy imported from several different sources to ensure sustainable energy security for the longest period possible.
But there is some disadvantage to Turkey’s position in becoming an energy center. These defects are centered around the political/economic risks associated with excessive dependence on imported energy resources. Turkey becomes more dependent on external energy (excessive dependence), and this has a significant cost to the economy and politics in the short and long term, sometimes we see the influence of Russian energy policy on Turkish foreign policy, for example, at the beginning of 2020, the Russian President visited Turkey to open the first phase of the Turkish stream, which is funded by Russia, a day after the Russian-backed Assad forces launched an attack on Adlib. This indicates that Russia is using energy projects and being a major gas source for Turkey to influence Turkish foreign policy. Also, there is the high cost of gas pipeline projects that Turkey cannot do on its own, another important issue is the environmental damage that these pipes or stations may leave, finally, it is the problem of balancing relations between countries such as Russia, Iran, the European Union, and the United States.
To sum up, Turkey has advantages and disadvantages in being a center of energy, and I believe that the advantages are more than dis the advantages, the evidence is that success achieved by Turkey in the field of energy and energy security in recent years. yes, I believe that in recent years Turkey took confident steps towards taking a place where it becomes a central energy country, by pursuing a policy of mutual profit in the field of energy which encourages exporting countries to invest in Turkey in the energy field, so Turkey succeeded in the energy field and every country that dealt with Turkey won.
Turkey succeeded in diversifying the sources of gas and energy supplies, and this is what we observe through the projects that Turkey is undertaking in cooperation with energy exporters such as Russia and Azerbaijan, with projects like TANAP and Turk Stream, Turkey also has succeeded in diversifying its sources of oil, so it does not depend on one source, but rather on several sources such as Iraq, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. For renewable energy, Turkey succeeded in increasing renewable energy capability and hydrocarbon energy supports its projects in recent years.
While there is a success, there must be shortcomings, however, there is insufficient success in terms of achieving self-sufficiency from local energy is still a vague reality and an unconfirmed matter that will be achieved in the near future in light of current developments. I mean here self-sufficiency from local energy, such as renewable energy, Turkey should focus on renewable energy more and develop it more. There is another issue which is reducing energy dependence on the outside in energy, an issue that is slowly going forward and awaiting its outcome.
The figures here show the situation of energy according to Turkish energy companies statistics and how much turkey depends on external sources and their dependence on internal energy.
Fig. 1. Trends in gross generation and net consumption of electricity in Turkey Source: TURKSTAT.
Fig. 2. Distribution of primary energy supply in Turkey by a) resource type, b) provision source, in 2017, Source: EIGM.
Fig. 3. Distribution of installed Electricity generation capacity by primary energy resources in 2017 (MW) Source: TEIAŞ.
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